- Air and water
pollution is on the rise with chemical substances
and heavy metals being detected from drinking
water. Reverse osmosis (RO) method is
effective against elimination of not only salt
but also bacteria, chemical substances and heavy
metals to desalinate seawater and obtain drinking
- This facility is now functioning
in Japan and has been provided to Indonesia,
Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Taiwan.
- It is possible to treat 500
liters fed water per hour.
- In Indonesia, 200m2 drinking
water is generated per day by this facility
which is supported by Japan's ODA. Local resident
purchase prepaid cards in advance and get water
from tanks by themselves.
- It is necessary to consider
how to supply the water for residents equally.
- Sample bottles were produced
at the facility in Japan. The bottles were used
for in-fight services of Japan's ANA (All Nippon
Areas that have no limited surface water or groundwater
may choose to desalinate seawater to obtain drinking
water. There are two leading methods of desalination;
Reverse osmosis (RO) and Multi-stage
Multi-stage flash is a desalination process
that distills seawater by flashing a portion of
the water into steam in multiple stages. These
desalination plants are used in the Middle East,
especially Saudi Arabia because the energy requirements
of the plants are very large. In the last decade,
Reverse osmosis (RO) method has grown very
fast, and most new facilities use it. Because
no heating or phase changes are needed energy
requirement are low in comparison to other process
Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses
pressure to force a solvent through a membrane
that retains the solute on one side and allow
the pure solvent to pass to the other side. This
is the reverse of the normal osmosis process,
which is the natural movement of solvent from
an area of low solute concentration, through a
membrane, to an area of high solute concentration
when no external pressure is applied.
The membranes used for reverse osmosis have a
dense barrier layer in the polymer matrix where
most separation occurs. In most cases membrane
is designed to allow only water to pass through
this dense layer while preventing the passage
of solutes (such as salt ions). This process requires
that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration
side of the membrane.
This process is best known for its use in desalination,
but it has also been used to purify fresh water
for medical, industrial and domestic applications
since the early 1970's.
The flow diagram of Reverse osmosis (RO)
method desalination system:
Commercial use of deep seawater in Japan got off
the ground in June 2000. As of March 2005, over
100 individuals and businesses have used deep
seawater to make alcoholic beverages, shampoos,
cosmetics, bath goods, mineral water, bread, noodles
and a wide range of other products.
Desalinated and concentrated deep seawater used
in cosmetics and mineral water.
A multistage ion exchange machine used by a company
to separate deep seawater into freshwater, concentrated
salt water, and desalinated mineral concentrated
water for use as mineral water and other products.