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Recycling machines >> Water

Water Treatment Projects

Deep Seawater

  • Air and water pollution is on the rise with chemical substances and heavy metals being detected from drinking water. Reverse osmosis (RO) method is effective against elimination of not only salt but also bacteria, chemical substances and heavy metals to desalinate seawater and obtain drinking water.

  • This facility is now functioning in Japan and has been provided to Indonesia, Korea, Singapore, Thailand and Taiwan.

  • It is possible to treat 500 liters fed water per hour.

  • In Indonesia, 200m2 drinking water is generated per day by this facility which is supported by Japan's ODA. Local resident purchase prepaid cards in advance and get water from tanks by themselves.

  •  It is necessary to consider how to supply the water for residents equally.

  • Sample bottles were produced at the facility in Japan. The bottles were used for in-fight services of Japan's ANA (All Nippon Airways).


Areas that have no limited surface water or groundwater may choose to desalinate seawater to obtain drinking water. There are two leading methods of desalination; Reverse osmosis (RO) and Multi-stage flash.

Multi-stage flash is a desalination process that distills seawater by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages. These desalination plants are used in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia because the energy requirements of the plants are very large. In the last decade, Reverse osmosis (RO) method has grown very fast, and most new facilities use it. Because no heating or phase changes are needed energy requirement are low in comparison to other process of desalination.

Reverse osmosis (RO)

Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allow the pure solvent to pass to the other side. This is the reverse of the normal osmosis process, which is the natural movement of solvent from an area of low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration when no external pressure is applied.

The membranes used for reverse osmosis have a dense barrier layer in the polymer matrix where most separation occurs. In most cases membrane is designed to allow only water to pass through this dense layer while preventing the passage of solutes (such as salt ions). This process requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration side of the membrane.

This process is best known for its use in desalination, but it has also been used to purify fresh water for medical, industrial and domestic applications since the early 1970's.

The flow diagram of Reverse osmosis (RO) method desalination system:

Commercial use of deep seawater in Japan got off the ground in June 2000. As of March 2005, over 100 individuals and businesses have used deep seawater to make alcoholic beverages, shampoos, cosmetics, bath goods, mineral water, bread, noodles and a wide range of other products.

Desalinated and concentrated deep seawater used in cosmetics and mineral water.

A multistage ion exchange machine used by a company to separate deep seawater into freshwater, concentrated salt water, and desalinated mineral concentrated water for use as mineral water and other products.

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